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An analysis of Business Bankruptcy

An analysis of Business Bankruptcy

This applies to however small or large your business is*

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A fundamental part of Business Health analysis is to diagnose the signs of Business Distress and suggesting the corrective measures and actions that would aid the business to handle any shortcomings and make sure that any business distress will be cured.

Corporate failure can be identified through two models:

  1. Qualitative (Non-Financial Information) and;
  2. Quantitative (Financial Information).

This article contains the identification of a Business distress (a preventive test) purely based on the Quantitative Model, mainly encompassing a logical combination of various ratios which act as a preventive medicine and also creates alerts.

  1. X-ray and Test

Health analysis can be done through various methods, one of which is the X-ray method.

We will now draw out a business X-ray.

Assumptions:

  1. This is first year of incorporation of the Company.2. Interest on Secured loan is 14 % using the straight-line method and holidays are ignored.3. Provision for Advance Tax is not applicableIdentification:
    Based on the above Financial Statements: -1. The Entity has achieved a turnover of more than 2 lakhs per month (in its first year) – Good2. Profitability is above 22% – Excellent ButBased on the X-ray, the company looks  good but we cannot analyze and decipher the exact health and so, we need to perform more substantive testing which is called Z Test or Z score.Z Score:
    Calculating a Z score The Z score is generated by combining ratios, which is an attempt to provide a comprehensive picture of the financial status of an entity under consideration.
    To be more specific, it is nothing but a calculation of five ratios, which are then multiplied by a pre-determined weighting factor and added together to produce the Z score.History
    NYU Stern Finance Professor Edward Altman, developed the Altman Z-score formula in 1967, and it was published in 1968. In 2012, he released an updated version called the Altman Z-score plus that can be used to evaluate public and private companies, manufacturing and nonmanufacturing companies, and U.S. and non-U.S. companies. The Altman Z-score Plus can be used to evaluate corporate credit risk, The formula is as follows:
    Z score = (1.2 X1) + (1.4 X2) + (3.3 X3) + (0.6 X4) + (1.0 X5)
    Where:
    X1 = working capital/total assetsX2 = retained earnings/total assetsX3 = earnings before interest and tax/total assetsX4 = market value of equity or capital investment/total liabilitiesX5 = sales/total assetsThese Five ratios are the combination of liquidity, profitability, leverage, solvency, and activity ratio with a predefined weight factor.
    The score indicates the likelihood of failure:
    The Pass score for the Z test is 3;
    The Fail score is below 1.81;The Grey Area is a score between 1.81 to 2.99.If we calculate Z score of the above entity:
    Z score is = 1.05This signifies an Alert Signal. It is like the Amber light in Traffic Signal.To sum up:
    Less that 1.81 – companies with a Z score of below 1.81 are in danger and possibly heading towards bankruptcy. Between 1.81 and 2.99 – companies with scores between 1.81 and 2.99 need further investigation. 3 or above – companies with a score of 3 or above are financially sound.The Z Test enables further investigation about business distress. If we can improve our numbers, we can work towards making our business healthy.
    Limitations
    Only Quantitative information is considered and parameters like competition, market condition, type of industry is completely discounted. Z score work on Historical data i.e. it is a postmortem and not projected data. Factors such as management style, approach & strategy are completely ignored. Further analysis is required to fully understand the situation, e.g. cash flow projections, detailed cost information, environmental review. Scores are only good predictors in the short-term. Figures are open to manipulation. The Z score model only gives guidance below the danger level of 1.81. Further investigation is needed for those organisations with scores between 1.81 and 2.99.To summarize and conclude, Organizations should perform the Z Test regularly. This will provide an adequate alert and help the business to function without any distress.

ABC Entity

Profit & Loss Account for the year ended 31 March XXXX

Particulars

Amount

Particulars

Amount

Expenses

Sales

26,34,500

Direct Expenses

10,99,520

Indirect Expenses

4,77,875

Bank Interest

1,40,000

Income Tax

3,33,900

Profit

5,83,205

TOTAL

26,34,500

TOTAL

26,34,500

ABC Entity

Balance Sheet As on 31 March XXXX

Particulars

Amount

Amount

Particulars

Amount

Amount

Capital

Fixed Asset

31,29,240

Opening Balance

15,55,009

(post depreciation)

Add : Profit

5,83,205

Less: Drawings

2,63,304

18,74,910

Current Assets

Loans & Advances

88,500

Loan

Sundry Debtors

6,93,300

Secured @ 14% p.a.

10,00,000

Cash

26,870

Bank

2,75,500

10,84,170

Current Liabilities

Income Tax Provision

3,33,900

Sundry Creditors

6,84,600

Expenses payable

3,20,000

13,38,500

TOTAL

42,13,410

TOTAL

42,13,410

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